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Testosterone replacement therapy has garnered significant interest due to its potential implications for the cardiovascular health of middle-aged and older men diagnosed with hypogonadism. As the discourse around hormone replacement therapy continues to evolve, the Testosterone Replacement Therapy for Assessment of Long-term Vascular Events and efficacy ResponSE in hypogonadal men (TRAVERSE) trial provides pivotal insights.
The TRAVERSE Trial has become a significant contributor to the evolving discourse around hormone replacement therapy. These results were formally presented during a late-breaking science session at ENDO 2023, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society, marking a significant milestone in our understanding of testosterone therapy’s cardiovascular implications.
This meticulously conducted, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial elucidates the cardiovascular risks associated with testosterone replacement therapy.
Comprehensive Design and Execution of the TRAVERSE Trial
The TRAVERSE trial enrolled 5,246 men between 45 and 80 years old, characterized by either a high-risk or preexisting cardiovascular disease coupled with symptoms of hypogonadism – a condition often termed “low T,” marked by testosterone levels below 300 ng/dL.
Before delving into the study’s specifics, it’s crucial to acknowledge its sponsors and overseers. The TRAVERSE trial was organized by a consortium of testosterone manufacturers and supervised by the Cleveland Clinic Coordinating Center for Clinical Research (C5Research) with assistance from a contract research organization (Labcorp Drug Development). The rigorous planning of the trial protocol was a joint effort of the executive committee and the sponsor, enhancing the integrity of the study’s design and execution.
The trial randomly assigned these individuals to receive either a daily transdermal 1.62% testosterone gel (dose adjusted to maintain testosterone levels within 350-750 ng per deciliter) or a placebo gel.
The study primarily focused on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, assessed in a time-to-event analysis. A secondary cardiovascular endpoint was the first occurrence of any component of the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or coronary revascularization, assessed in a time-to-event analysis. The mean duration of treatment was 21.7±14.1 months, and the mean follow-up was 33.0±12.1 months.
The incidence of a primary cardiovascular event was marginally higher in the placebo group (7.3%) compared to the testosterone group (7.0%). However, the testosterone group demonstrated a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation, acute kidney injury, and pulmonary embolism, indicating a necessity for caution in testosterone therapy.
Discerning the Implications of the TRAVERSE Trial
The TRAVERSE trial’s results hold considerable implications for testosterone replacement therapy. Dr. Mohit Khera, a reputable specialist in male and female sexual dysfunction, men’s health, and hormone replacement therapy, was a prominent contributor to this trial.
Recognized internationally for his groundbreaking work in cardiology, Dr. Steven Nissen played an instrumental role in the TRAVERSE trial. As the Chief Academic Officer of the Heart, Vascular & Thoracic Institute at the Cleveland Clinic and a leading authority in cardiovascular medicine, Dr. Nissen served as one of the Principal Investigators for the trial. His pivotal role ensured the rigorous scientific execution of the study and facilitated an insightful interpretation of its findings.
His expertise and leadership were integral in illuminating the cardiovascular effects of testosterone therapy and underscored the necessity for further nuanced research. Dr. Nissen’s unwavering commitment to robust, patient-oriented research continues to guide and inspire future studies in this crucial area of medicine.
Simultaneously, it’s worth mentioning the ongoing sub-studies of the TRAVERSE trial. Led by Dr. Shalendar Bhasin at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, these sub-studies are diligently exploring the effects of testosterone treatment on prostate cancer, sexual function, and anemia, seeking to widen the applicability of the TRAVERSE trial’s findings.
Currently a Professor in the Scott Department of Urology at Baylor College of Medicine, Dr. Khera’s profound understanding of the subject matter was instrumental in interpreting the trial’s results.
This cautionary approach is essential, given that testosterone prescriptions have dramatically increased in recent years. According to a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine, prescriptions for testosterone therapy tripled between 2001 and 2011 for men over 40. Dr. Khera underscores that the TRAVERSE study does not advocate testosterone treatment for men without hypogonadism despite these trends.
It merely highlights the potential benefits and risks of testosterone therapy in men diagnosed with this condition. This viewpoint aligns with that of Dr. Shalender Bhasin, a Co-Principal Investigator of the TRAVERSE study, who clarified that the trial’s findings do not support the safety of large testosterone doses often misused by athletes and bodybuilders.
It is crucial to emphasize that low testosterone levels should not be treated without medical guidance. Over-the-counter testosterone boosters, often marketed as “natural” solutions, have not undergone rigorous clinical trials similar to the TRAVERSE study and thus have not received FDA approval for their use in treating hypogonadism. The long-term safety and efficacy of these products remain unknown and potentially harmful. The TRAVERSE trial underscores the importance of evidence-based treatment regimens, rigorously tested and evaluated, when managing hypogonadism and any accompanying cardiovascular risks.
TRAVERSE Patient Selection and Clinical Application
One noteworthy aspect of the TRAVERSE trial is its implications for patient selection in testosterone replacement therapy. The study’s participants were carefully chosen: men aged 45 or older with hypogonadism and preexisting cardiovascular disease, an approach reflecting a significant portion of the hypogonadism patient population. However, it is crucial to highlight that this selection might limit the applicability of the results to other patient demographics, such as younger men, women, or those without cardiovascular conditions.
The findings from this trial should be interpreted with caution when considering testosterone therapy for other patient groups. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that the TRAVERSE trial was designed to evaluate the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, which might not fully represent the broader spectrum of potential testosterone-related side effects, including mood changes, sleep apnea, or prostate issues. Therefore, clinicians should judiciously integrate these findings into their practice, considering all potential risks and benefits of therapy on a case-by-case basis.
These aspects underscore the necessity for further trials involving diverse patient groups to validate the TRAVERSE trial results and broaden the evidence base for testosterone replacement therapy. Future studies must also strive to assess the full scope of testosterone therapy outcomes, encompassing both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular effects, to provide a comprehensive view of its safety and efficacy.
Future Perspectives and Conclusion
The TRAVERSE trial is a beacon for future research in testosterone replacement therapy and cardiovascular health. The trial’s rigorous design and execution set an excellent precedent for future studies, yet it also highlights areas requiring further exploration. For example, the higher incidence of atrial fibrillation, acute kidney injury, and pulmonary embolism in the testosterone group necessitates more in-depth examination. Such studies should focus on determining the exact cause-effect relationship and further elucidating the physiological pathways involved.
Additionally, further research is needed to identify patient subgroups that may particularly benefit from testosterone therapy or are at higher risk of adverse effects. Individualized risk-benefit analyses could guide clinical decisions in testosterone replacement therapy, leading to more tailored and safer treatment plans.
The TRAVERSE trial significantly enhances our understanding of the cardiovascular implications of testosterone replacement therapy. It provides valuable evidence that testosterone therapy does not increase the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in men diagnosed with hypogonadism and preexisting cardiovascular disease. However, it also brings to light potential risks associated with this therapy, emphasizing the importance of careful patient selection and monitoring during treatment. As the medical community continues to interpret and apply the TRAVERSE trial’s findings, its lessons will undoubtedly shape the future management of hypogonadism and contribute to improved cardiovascular health in this patient population.